Academic Trends
Zhu Ying:The Preparation and Establishment of All -China Federation of Chambers of Commerce in the Late Qing Dynasty and the Early Republic of China

Abstract: With the emergence of chambers of commerce in various places in the late Qing dynasty,people of vision in the business circle realized that they should unite the local chambers into a national federation.In 1907 and 1909,Shanghai chamber of commerce held two chamber symposiums and discussed the establishment of Chinas Merchant Federation.It even set up a start-up office to be reaponsible for the preparatory work,but for various reasons the establishment of the federation had not been realized.After the founding of the Republic of China,the Shanghai and Hankou chambers of commerce continued to promote the establishment of Chinas Merchant Federation.In 1912,during the National Provisional Insustry and Commerce Conference,representatives of local chambers were called together to discuss related matters,and the constitution of All-China Federation of Chambers of Commerce was finalized and submitted to the Ministry of Industry and Commerce for approval,which finally lead to the formal establishment of national federation of chambers of commerce.The preparation and establishment of All-China Federation of Chambers of Commerce reflect the continuous enhancement of Chinese Merchants gregarious thought and self-identification consciousness.It holds an important position and influence in the development history of modern Chinese chambers of commerce.

Keywords : merchant ; chamber of commerce; All-China Federation of Chambers of Commerce;in the late Qing dynasty and the early Republic of China

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